Reading is a critical part of every child’s path to success. Not surprisingly, educators and researchers have worked for decades to refine and develop effective approaches to reading instruction. In recent years there has been a move away from assumptions based on beliefs about how children should learn to read. Now scientists use research methods to discover what processes happen in the brain when we are reading. They have discovered that different parts of the brain must work together smoothly during reading. A high speed transfer of information is necessary to translate the letters into words, assign meaning to each word, and then make sense of the whole. These connections in the brain can be studied and certain conclusions reached about children who struggle to read.